When? 29th June 1944
Additional Information: During World War II,a 7089 ton Japanese ship used for transporting troops,had 6000 men on board when it was torpedoed by the American USS Sturgeon.Only 600 people survived.
When? 18th September 1944
Additional Information: The Junyō Maru was a 'Hell Ship',this term was used for vessels which were known to have horrible living conditions and those on board subjected to cruelty.It was built and launched in 1913 and was a cargo ship.At the time of its sinking,during World War II,it was carrying 1,449 prisoners of war from Netherlands,Britain, Australia and America,as well as 4,200 Javanese Slave Labourers.It was torpedoed by a British submarine called HMS Tradewind.There were 680 survivors.
When? 7th November 1941
Additional Information: The Armenia was built,in 1928,as a passenger ship,but was used for transporting cargo and wounded passengers during World War II.When enemy seizure seemed imminent,thousands of civilians boarded the Armenia in Sevastopol,joining the thousands of wounded already on board.More passengers boarded a few miles away in Yalta.The ship was attacked by a Heinkel He 111 medium bomber,which scored a direct hit from a torpedo.Due to the passengers on board not being registered properly,it could not be established exactly how many people were killed,but estimates of 5000 are thought to be low.
When? 16th April 1945
Additional Information: The Goya was originally a Norwegian ship but was seized by Germany shortly after its launch in 1940.It was used by the Germany for troop transport and took part in Operation Hannibal,a naval operation to evacuate German military personnel and civilians along the Baltic Sea.It was loaded with German soldiers and refugees when it was torpedoed by Soviet submarine L-3 and sunk within four minutes of being hit.This is another instance of passengers boarding in chaotic circumstances,making an exact death toll impossible to accurately configure.Estimates put the number who survived between 172-183,and with roughly 6,700 passengers and crew,it can be assumed that the death toll would be at least 6,500.Most passengers went down with the ship or died of hypothermia in the icy waters.
When? 30th January 1945
Additional Information: The sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff is noted as being the largest loss of life in a single ship sinking in history.Like the Goya,the Wilhelm Gustloff was a part of Operation Hannibal,used to evacuate German military personnel and civilians.The ship was spotted and attacked by Soviet submarine S-13,it was struck by all three torpedoes fired by the S-13.It took less than 40 minutes for the ship to sink.While the passenger list notes 6,050 people on board,due to the conditions in which passengers were being boarded,many were not listed.Research done by Heinz Schön and backed up by a Discovery Channel program in 2003,estimates the number of passengers on board as 10,600.The majority of the deaths were a result of the freezing waters,with others being trapped inside.It is estimated that 5,000 of the lives lost were children.
5)Battle of Cartagena de Indias
When? March-May 1741
Additional Information: The battle of Cartigena de Indias was between British and Spanish forces.The British were led by Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon,and the Spanish led by Admiral Blas de Lezo.The battle was the most significant of the War of Jenkin' Ear which lasted between 1739-1748.Despite Britain having more than 7 times the military personnel of Spain committed to the battle,the victory was a Spanish one.Along with the estimated losses of between 9,500 and 11,500,the British lost 6 Royal Navy ships,with 17 heavily damaged,as well as 4 frigates and 27 transport ships lost.
Additional Information: During the Anglo-Spanish War which lasted from 1589-1604,and the Eighty Years' War from 1568-1648,a fleet of warships were sent by Queen Elizabeth I,and were led by Sir Francis Drake as Admiral and Sir John Norreys as General.The British had won an advantage after dispersing the Spanish Armada the previous year,but were unable to capitalise on their victory.British forces for the battle were made up of over 23,000 men,and somewhere between 11,000-15,000 of them would be killed,wounded or die of disease.
Additional Information:A year before the events of the English Armada,Philip II of Spain sent the Spanish Armada to invade England.The Armada was made up of 130 ships and they were sent on 8th August 1588.The intention was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I,and stop the English from interfering and causing harm to Spanish interests. Most of the lives lost and damage done to the fleet were not caused by battle but by severe storms.
When? 256/255 BC
Additional Information: The First Punic War was fought between the Roman Republic and Ancient Carthage from 264-241BC.The war resulted in over 285,000 deaths and casualties from both sides.One particular part of the war following Rome's attempted invasion of Africa.At first the Roman army were successful but then the Carthaginian's re-established naval supremacy.The Romans sent a fleet to recover survivors of the invasion.However,on the trip home a huge amount of the Roman fleet was destroyed by a storm,with the death toll believed to be around 90,000.
When? 1274 & 1281
Additional Information: Kamikaze or 'divine wind' refers to two typhoons which were so well timed that they were believed to have been caused by Japan's protective deities.During the reign of Kublai Khan,Mongol fleets attempted to invade Japan on two separate occasions.In 1974,Mongol forces devastated Japan and overwhelmed Japanese forces.Suspecting that there would be an attack from Japanese reinforcements,the Mongols,also,retreated to sea.This is where the first 'divine wind' struck and the majority of the Mongolian fleet were destroyed by the typhoon.In 1281,what is believed to have been roughly four thousand ships carrying 140,000 men once again attempted to invade Japan.The Mongols spent months trying to find a suitable beach to land on,but instead were once again met with a typhoon which destroyed their fleet and forced them to return to their continental bases.The Mongols never attacked Japan again.
When? 4th October 1744
Additional Information: The HMS Victory launched on 23rd February 1737.The ship and its entire crew were lost while returning to England following a severe storm.No trace of any of the sailors aboard were ever found but the wreck was discovered in 2008.
When? 26th September 1954
Additional Information: The Tōya Maru was launched on 21st November 1947,and could accomodate 1,128 passengers with a crew of 120.Due to expected bad weather,passengers were transferred to the Tōya Maru and a journey was cancelled.However,when the weather seemed to have improved,the Maru set out again,but it was just a break in the typhoon.When it became apparent that the bad weather was set to continue,the Maru put down its anchor but it didn't hold.The ship capsized and sank.Of the 1,309 passengers and crew on board,only 150 people survived.
8) HMS Association,HMS Eagle,HMS Romney,HMS Firebrand
When? 22nd October 1707
Additional Information: The HMS Association,HMS Eagle,HMS Romney,HMS Firebrand were part of a twenty-one ship fleet under the command of Admiral Cloudesley Shovell.The fleet were returning to Portsmouth,but their journey was plagued by bad weather and the storms pushed the ships off course.It was too late before those on board realised that they were off course,and the fleet struck rocks resulting in the loss of four ships.The HMS Association sank in around four minutes,taking its crew of 800 men along with Admiral Shovell down with it.The exact death toll for all four ships is unknown,but there were reportedly 13 survivors.
When? 15th April 1912
Additional Information: The RMS Titanic was launched on 31st May 1911,and was labelled as unsinkable by media outlets.It was on its maiden voyage from Southampton,UK to New York City,US when it hit an iceberg causing the ship to start taking on water,leading to its sinking.There were around 1,317 passengers and 885 crew members on board,but only enough lifeboats to accomodate 1,178 people.The Titanic was under-capacity on its voyage,as there would have been enough space for 2,566 passengers,but a national coal strike caused many to change their travel plans,otherwise the number of fatalities could have been much higher.The ship broke in two,and those who didn't get into lifeboats were plunged into freezing cold water,many of who didn't survive longer than 15-30 minutes.Around 710 people survived the disaster.
When? 6th February 1822
Additional Information: The Tek Sing is labelled the "Titanic of the East".It set out from the port of Amoy (Xiamen,Fujian,China) headed for Batavia (Jakarta,Indonesia) when it ran aground on a reef after the captain attempted to take a shortcut.Over 200 survivors were discovered and rescued the next morning.The wreck was re-discovered in 1999 and led to 350,000 pieces of the ship's cargo being raised.
When? 16th February 1993
Additional Information: The Ferry Neptune was a hugely overloaded vessel which is estimated to have had over 2,000 people on board despite having a maximum capacity of 650.One of the decks collapsed after many of the passengers went to one side of the ship to avoid rainfall.The absense of emergency gear is what led to the huge loss of life.
When? 26th September 2002
Additional Information: Another overloaded ferry disaster is Le Joola,which was carrying close to 2,000 passengers,which is more than three times its maximum capacity.The ship ran into a violent storm off the coast of Gambia and was sailing farther out at sea than it was licensed to be.The ferry capsized,anyone who survived the initial incident likely drowned when it took hours for rescue operations to begin.Local fisherman were able to pull some survivors from the water.Only 64 people survived and the exact death toll is unknown due to large numbers of unticketed passengers.
When? 6th December 1917
Additional Information: The SS Mont-Blanc was a freighter which was carrying highly volatile explosives when it pulled into Halifax Harbour in Nova Scotia,Canada on 6th December 1917.The vessel collided with the SS Imo,a Norwegian ship which resulted in a fire that ignited the Mont-Blanc's cargo.The crew from the Mont-Blanc had enough time to abandon ship and all but one survived.Twenty minutes after the collision,there was an explosion,the explosion,combined with falling debris and collapsing buildings led to the deaths of approximately 2,000 people,with 9,000 injured.
When? 4th December 1948
Additional Information: This passenger steamship was officially almost 1,000 people over capacity when it exploded on the Huangpu River.The ship was full with refugees fleeing from the Chinese Civil War,and the explosion is thought to have been caused by a mine.
1)MV Doña Paz
When? 20th December 1987
Additional Information: This is the deadliest peacetime maritime disaster in history.The Doña Paz was overcrowded,with more than 2000 unlisted passengers as it travelled from Leyte Island to Manila.There were only 26 survivors after the Doña Paz collided with the MT Vector oil tanker,which was carrying 8,800 US barrels of gasoline.The collision led to a fire which spread rapidly throughout both ships.Within two hours the Doña Paz had sunk and within four,so had the Vector.There were reportedly no instructions issued to the passengers and life jackets were locked away.It was sixteen hours before any search and resuce operations were organised.24 of the survivors were from the Doña Paz,and the other two were crew members from the Vector,and only 5 of the 24 survivors were listed on the Doña Paz manifest.The Vector was found to be operating without a license or a qualified master,as well as the vessel itself being judged to be unseaworthy.
Thanks for reading! If you enjoyed this,you might be interested in the Top 10 Deadliest Volcanic Eruptions which you can find here:http://throughthefirewall.blogspot.de/2014/08/10-deadliest-volcanic-eruptions.html
You can find and like The Firewall on Facebook here:https://www.facebook.com/throughthefirewall?ref=hl